Types of Biofuels
In a sentence, biofuel is a renewable fuel type obtained from plants and animals. In other saying, Biofuel is a renewable fuel type produced from living organism. For example; corn, wheat, canola and palm. Most important biofuel is ethanol and biodiesel. The fuel types are renewable and alternative energy type of the fossil fuels. There are three biofuel types found in nature. Let’s see types of biofuels
Related: What is Biomass?
First Generation Biofuels
First generation biofuels are produced from sugar, starch, animal fat or vegetable oil raw materials using conventional technologies. Since these raw materials were also used as food, some sectors criticized the first generation biofuels.
Today, the production of first-generation biofuels is limited so that raw materials do not harm food stock and do not threaten biodiversity. Therefore, in order to meet the increasing demand, second generation biofuels have been produced by corporate firms and countries.
Second Generation Biofuels
People producing second generation biofuels use the raw materials. Because they are not used directly for food purposes but are food residues (such as shells). According to authors, gas emission in the second generation biofuels are less than first generation biofuels.
Third Generation Biofuels
Third generation biofuels use algae as raw material. The production process involves the use of carbohydrates released by the fermentation of algae. Also, Second and third generation biofuels are also called advanced biofuels. As an example of an advanced biofuel still under development, Hydrogenated Renewable Diesel can be given. HDRD is obtained by processing of animal and vegetable oils in oil refineries. This fuel can then be mixed with oil.
Fourth Generation Biofuels (After 2030);
In 2030, authors will start to generate biofuels genetically from raw materials. Also, carbon dioxide in the raw materials will not be given to the atmosphere. Besides, by microorganism of the CO2, sugar will be converted to the ethanol and hydrogen.
Biofuel Technology in the World
Most popular biofuels in the world are ethanol, biodiesel and biogases. Also, the most popular country using the biofuel technology in the world is Brazil. Because, ın 1970, Brazil has crises about petrol. Therefore, the country decided to use liquid biofuels.
- India and China is another country using the biofuel. However, they use the biofuel in a low rate. Besides, Europe use the biofuel technology in high rate.
- In Denmark, wood briquettes and pellets are produced from solid biofuels by increasing wood imports.
- Finland increases its energy from biomass and supplies 25% of its energy consumption from biomass.
- In France, wood is used as a source of biomass and in the production of energy from industrial wastes it is exploited.
- In the Netherlands there are large amounts of wood waste and pellet and sold to Sweden, Germany and Belgium. Important in Spain’s agricultural production amount of waste.
- Forests and industrial wastes are all utilized in the country. Forest in Sweden and forest industry by-products, energy crops, straw, and biofuels it is provided.
- Canada also want to dominate biofuel technology until 2050. Aim is to generate %50 electricity proving the country’s electricity necessary.
Which Country Prefer Which Biofuel?
Today, many used biofuels’ origin is plants. Biofuels generally is being using in industrial areas. Some plant species are cultivated only for biofuel products. Especially, in the US, firms use the soybean and corn for the production of biofuels with density. Besides, Brazil and Europe prefer to sugar beet. Also, in China, cassava and sorghum, palm oil in Southeast Asia in India are preferred.