Types of Biofuels
In a sentence, biofuel is a renewable fuel type obtained from plants and animals. In another saying, biofuel is a renewable fuel type produced from a living organism. For example; corn, wheat, canola, and palm. Most important biofuel is ethanol and biodiesel. The fuel types are renewable and alternative energy type of fossil fuels. There are three biofuel types found in nature. Let’s see examples of biofuels.
Related: What is Biomass?
First Generation Biofuels
First-generation biofuels are produced from sugar, starch, animal fat, or vegetable oil raw materials using conventional technologies. Since these raw materials were also used as food, some sectors criticized the first-generation biofuels.
Today, the production of first-generation biofuels is limited so that raw materials do not harm food stock and do not threaten biodiversity. Therefore, to meet the increasing demand, second-generation biofuels have been produced by corporate firms and countries.
Second Generation Biofuels
People producing second-generation biofuels use raw materials. Because they are not used directly for food purposes but are food residues (such as shells). According to authors, gas emission in the second generation biofuels are less than first-generation biofuels.
Third Generation Biofuels
Third-generation biofuels use algae as raw material. The production process involves the use of carbohydrates released by the fermentation of algae. Also, Second and third-generation biofuels are called advanced biofuels. As an example of an advanced biofuel still under development, Hydrogenated Renewable Diesel can be given. HDRD is obtained by processing of animal and vegetable oils in oil refineries. This fuel can then be mixed with oil.
Fourth Generation Biofuels (After 2030);
In 2030, authors will start to generate biofuels genetically from raw materials. Also, carbon dioxide in the raw materials will not be given to the atmosphere. Besides, by a microorganism of the CO2, sugar will be converted to the ethanol and hydrogen.
Biofuel Technology in the World
Most popular biofuels in the world are ethanol, biodiesel, and biogases. Also, the most popular country using biofuel technology in the world is Brazil. Because of in 1970, Brazil has crises with petrol. Therefore, the state decided to use liquid biofuels.
- India and China is another country using biofuel. However, they use biofuel at a low rate. Besides, Europe uses biofuel technology at a high standard.
- In Denmark, scientists produce wood briquettes and pellets from solid biofuels by increasing wood imports.
- Finland increases its energy from biomass and supplies 25% of its energy consumption from biomass.
- In France, scientists use wood as a source of biomass, and in the production of energy from industrial wastes, it is exploited.
- In the Netherlands, there are large amounts of wood waste and pellet and sold to Sweden, Germany, and Belgium. Famous in Spain’s agricultural production amount of waste.
- Forests and industrial wastes are all utilized in the country. Forest in Sweden and forest industry by-products, energy crops, straw, and biofuels it is provided.
- Canada also wants to dominate biofuel technology until 2050. The aim is to generate %50 electricity proving the country’s electricity necessary.
Which Country Prefer Which Biofuel?
Today, many used biofuels’ origins are plants. Biofuels generally is being used in industrial areas. Some plant species are cultivated only for biofuel products. Especially in the US, firms use the soybean and corn for the production of biofuels with density. Besides, Brazil and Europe prefer to sugar beet. Also, in China, cassava, and sorghum, palm oil in Southeast Asia in India are preferred.