Biodiesel is simply a fuel acquired from biological oils. Besides, we can say what biodiesel question is; Biodiesel is a product obtained from canola, sunflower, soybean, safflower by the reaction of methanol and ethanol.
There are many biodiesel types and it doesn’t include petrol. However, It can be used as diesel fuel if biodiesel mix with diesel based on petrol. Therefore, pure biodiesel and any diesel-biodiesel mixtures is used for unmodified diesel engines.
Bio-diesel mixing ratios with diesel
- B5 = %5 Biodiesel + %95 Diesel
- B20 = %20 Biodiesel + %80 Diesel
- B50 = %50 Biodiesel + %50 Diesel
- B100 = %100 Biodiesel
Today, many studies have been conducted in biodiesel production process area.
Main aim is to obtain fuel from vegetable oils in the properties and performance of diesel. Therefore, there are most 4 used biodiesel production processes;
Biodiesel Fuel Properties
Today people prefer to biodiesel fuel for many benefits and usage areas. Especially, the flash point of biodiesel is higher than diesel. (> 110 C). This provide the biodiesel is safer than normal fuels for transport and storage. Also, there are many benefits, use areas, features of biodiesel fuel.
1- ) Oil-based diesel in every ratio can be mixed with Biodiesel. This feature improves the quality of oil-derived diesel. Here, aim is to reduce the emission values of environmentally harmful gases resulting from combustion.
2- ) Cetane number of biodiesel is higher than the cetane number of diesel. This cause the engine operate with more less sound.
3- ) Biodiesel can be also used with small chancing in engines working with diesel fuels.
4- ) Because biodiesel dissolves residues and deposits in the fuel tank walls and pipes resulting from the storage of diesel fuel due to its solvent properties, precautions should be taken to prevent clogging of the filters. In addition, fuel stations and vehicle repair shops do not need any changes.
Environmental Characteristics of Biodiesel
Biodiesel is obtained from agricultural plants. In addition, it does not have an effect that increases the greenhouse effect since it converts CO2 (carbon dioxide) through photosynthesis and accelerates the carbon cycle.
Especially in many US states, the use of pure biodiesel is mandatory in transportation vehicles and boats used in aquatic areas such as lakes and rivers.
The amount of sulphur contained is much lower than diesel. This prevents negative effects such as acid rain, when biodiesel is used instead of diesel.
It has also been proven that CO emissions are reduced and particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are released less.
With the use of pure biodiesel and diesel-biodiesel mixture, CO, PM, HF, SOx and CH 4 emissions decrease and NOx and HCl emissions increase.
Biodiesel converts carbon dioxide by photosynthesis in the biological carbon cycle, accelerates the carbon cycle, and has no effect on increasing greenhouse gas emissions.
Sulfur emission can be completely eliminated when using pure biodiesel. When compared to diesel fuel, pollution caused by sulfur oxide and sulphate emission is cleaned and destroyed with the use of biodiesel.
Compared to diesel fuels, carbon monoxide emissions in biodiesel use are 48% less.
Particulate respiration is no more than a danger to human health. Compared to diesel fuels, the amount of particles released in biodiesel use is 47% less.
In biodiesel use, unburned hydrocarbon content is 67%, CO 2 emission is 80%, and carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons are 75-90% lower than diesel fuel.